|Title||Wage and Hour Violations in Urban Labour Markets: A Comparison of Los Angeles, New York and Chicago|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2012|
|Authors||Milkman, Ruth, González, Ana Luz, and Ikeler, Peter|
|Journal||Industrial Relations Journal|
|Pagination||378 - 398|
|Keywords||hour violations, labor standards, minimum wage, wage violations|
This article compares violations of minimum wage laws and other labor standards in New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago. Los Angeles has the highest violation rates, due to such factors as its industrial composition and disproportionately large number of small establishments, as well as its vast unauthorized immigrant population. In addition, Los Angeles’ higher rates reflect the stricter legal standards in California. We conclude that, although stronger workplace laws and regulations are crucial, in the absence of effective enforcement, they may fail to prevent workplace violations.