|标题||Early Retirement Across Europe. Does Non-Standard Employment Increase Participation of Older Workers?|
|作者||Been, Jim, and vanVliet, Olaf|
|Institution||Netspar Discussion Paper No. 10-2014-044|
|City||Tilburg , The Netherlands|
|关键词||early retirement, Europe, labor market institutions, non-standard employment, part-time employment, self-employment, social insurance programs|
In many European countries, the labor market participation of older workers is considerably lower than the labor market participation of prime-age workers. This study analyzes the variation in labor market withdrawal of older workers across 13 European countries over the period 1995-2008. We seek to contribute to existing macro-econometric studies by taking non-standard employment into account, by relating the empirical model more explicitly to optional value model theory on retirement decisions and by using a two-step IV-GMM estimator to deal with endogeneity issues. The analysis leads to the conclusion that part-time employment is negatively related to labor market withdrawal of older men. This relationship is less strong among women. Additionally, we find that part-time employment at older ages does not decrease the average actual hours worked. Furthermore, the results show a positive relationship between unemployment among older workers and early retirement similar to previous studies.